COMPOSED BY

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (Jan 1756 – Dec 1791) in 1788

DURATION

Approximately 26 minutes (total 4 movements)

Instrumentation

1 flute, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, strings

SUMMARY OF THE COMPOSITION

Symphony No. 40 not only is one of Mozart’s most famous symphonies, but also an excellent representation of the genre. He wrote this piece, which was his last three symphonies, in summer 1788. This piece is one of the only two of his symphonies written in minor keys, reflecting his interest in the artistic movement, Sturm und Drang (Storm and Stress), and showcasing darker and stronger emotions.

1

Molto Allegro

The first movement depicts plaintive sighs, though it also contains gentle and graceful melodies, with occasional bursts of jubilation. A restless first theme is played first by violins and then iterated with power and insistence by the full orchestra.

2

Andante

The softly elegant second movement is a reflection of a quiet moonlit evening. Firstly, the second violins are joined by the first violins imitating the successively higher pitches. The winds then cool down the atmosphere with a delicate colouration in their turn. A steady pulsating rhythm is constant in this movement.

3

Menuetto & Trio

This movement offers both darkness and light, the dark passages strongly assertive and the light ones sweeter. It opens with a heavy minuet in a strutting heavily accented theme, which reflects the continuation of the dark emotions in the second movement. Then, the trio takes over in the G major tonality, but the light tone is just a temporary lyrical release. The piece returns to G minor, which asserts its potency and heavy atmosphere with a da capo.

4

Allegro Assai

The final movement returns to the more serious mood of the piece, often giving an urgent and fretful turn. Different sections of the orchestra simultaneously concern themselves with different melodic ideas, which blend into an intricate mix at the middle of the movement. The symphony ends with stress and agitation.

WHO IS ... W. A. Mozart?

Suprising fun facts

  • Mozart’s full name was Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart.
  • He was afraid of the trumpet as a child. His favourite instrument was the clarinet, for which he wrote his first concerto.
  • It was said that Mozart transcribed Allegri’s Miserere, a 5-part choral composition, at the age of 14 after hearing it once. This was the first recorded case of “musical piracy”.
  • He had many pets, including a dog, a starling, a canary, and a horse.
  • Mozart’s lifelong rival, Antonio Salieri, claimed to have poisoned Mozart. However, this claim was never proven.

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